Thermodynamics plays a role in environmental systems through reaction equilibrium, phase equilibrium, properties and process energy requirements.  Reaction equilibrium ultimately leads to quantifying values of equilibrium constants and using these values to develop relationships between compound concentrations.  Phase equilibrium leads to partition coefficients that defines the equilibrium concentration relationship between two phases.  Thermodynamic properties include pressure-volume-temperature relationships using equations of state.  The Ideal Gas Law is the simplest equation of state that serves natural atmospheric conditions well.  Other thermodynamic properties include solubility in various phases (leading to partition coefficients).  Enthalpy and entropy properties provide a means to equilibrium constants from the second law of thermodynamics and to process energy requirements.  

Reaction Equilibrium

Phase Equilibrium

Equations of State

Energy Cycles

Sample Problems

Ideal Gas Calculation

© Warren Stiver 2017